Chandrayaan’s mission is one of India’s most important missions. The Chandrayaan is operated by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). India is also progressing day by day in space science. India is working closely with foreign companies – India is looking at competing with the big powerful countries, Russia, America, China, etc. Indian countries are inventing new technologies for the search of scientific spacecraft.
The mission of several tasks has been successfully completed by ISRO of India i.e. Indian Space Research Organization. One of these comes Chandrayaan-1 was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Inspection Center at Sriharikota on Wednesday 22 October 2008 at 6.21 AM. And it was active till October 30, 2009.
All the scientists were worried a bit about the weather, but the mission was successful. Although some clouds were visible in the sky, there was no rain and no electricity was shining. Because of this projection. I did not have any problem.
India became the sixth country in the world after the successful landing of Chandrayaan-1. With this launch, former chief Kasturirangan was present along with ISRO (ISRO) chief Mr. Madhavan Nair on this great occasion.
It was India’s first spacecraft to do something towards the moon under the lunar exploration program of the Indian Space Research Organization. During this mission, an unmanned probe was sent to the moon on 22 October 2008, and the mission was active till 30 August 2009.
The vehicle was launched by a modified version of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV) from the Satish Dhawan Space Inspection Center with the help of rockets.
During this mission of Chandrayaan-1, the satellite took 5 days to reach the moon, and it took 15 days for the moon to set in orbit. Chandrayaan’s Orbiter Moon Impact Probe (MIP) on the lunar surface 14 November 2008 Had landed, which became the fourth country to place its flag on the moon.
The main objective of this Chandrayaan was to find detailed maps and fractions of water and helium on the surface of the moon. Chandrayaan-1, a 525 kg satellite 100 km above the moon, has been placed in polar orbit. This satellite was the 27th undertaking of the sequence of Indian spacecraft launch.
Its tenure was to be about 2 years old, then for some reason, the control room was closed due to loss of contact. In this way, India became the 6th country to send the moon to the moon. In this way, India became the 6th country to send ships to the moon. This venture gave way to send aircraft including humans to the moon and Mars.
It took a total of 2 years 10 months, 6 days to prepare this Chandrayaan-1 mission by the Indian Space Research Organization. The weight at the time of its launch was 1,380 kg (3,040 lb).
This mission was also started by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). But during the mission of Chandrayaan-2, the entire indigenous technology was used to build it. It was done to land on the surface of the moon. All of this mission was looked after by Mr. Was completed in the presence of K. Sivan.
This campaign was launched in 2019; this campaign consisted of a lunar orbiter, a rover, and a ladder. Chandrayaan-2 was successfully launched from Sriharikota on 22 July 2019 at 2:43 PM Indian time.
Same India was to launch Chandrayaan-2 for this mission on 15 July itself. But it was postponed due to a technical breakdown of the cryogenic engine, and then it was successfully launched on 22 July 2019.
Under this mission, the main objective of Chandrayaan-2 was to find the surface of the moon and the trace of mineral water by a robot rover by reaching the lunar surface. Rocket GSLV Mk-3 was used in the Chandrayaan-2 mission.
The duration of this mission took approximately 1 year of orbital, Vikram Lander 15 days, Pragyan Rover 15 days. At the time of the launch of Chandrayaan-2, the total weight of the orbital was 3,877 kg (8,547 lb), Vikram Ladder 1,471 kg (3,243 lb). ), The Pragyan Rover was 27 kilograms (60 lb). It consisted of a 1 kW of energy, Vikram Ladder 650 watts, and Pragyan Rover 50 watts.
- It is the first space mission to conduct a soft landing on the south polar zone on the moon.
- Chandrayaan – 2 is India’s first mission to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with the help of indigenous technology.
- This is the first Indian mission to explore its area on the lunar surface with land-based technology.
- To be the 4th country to do so, Zee will make a soft landing on the surface of the moon.
Chandrayaan – 2 Benefits to the Country of India –
- After Earth, India will emerge as a pioneer in geological search on the moon.
- After France, America, India can also become an important command country from its military point of view.
- Chandrayaan mission revealed to ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) powerful rocket and heavy payload capability to the world.
- The competence of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) in the field of communication, sensor technology will be demonstrated.
- This will pave the way for the manned mission “Gaganyaan Mission” under India’s proposal in 2022.
- In the mission to be sent to the moon, a fourth member will be formed in the club of three powerful countries.
- The data from the payload placed along with the mission of Chandrayaan-2 will show the presence of water and minerals there.
Chandrayaan 3 Mission
Friends, Chandrayaan 3 is a follow up mission of Chandrayaan 2. India is another important step in the field of research which is continuously being developed in the field of technology by Indian scientists. In today’s time, India is also not behind any other big country.
This Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft will be launched by LVM 3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-III) from Satish Dhawan Space Center Sriharikota. This is being done by ISRO to complete that project due to the failure of Chandrayaan 3 Chandrayaan 2.
Under this mission, it will be done to reach the surface of the moon and test it there. It includes Lander and Rover. But it will not have an orbiter. Chandrayaan-3 was successfully launched this year on 14 July 2023 at 02:35. Before this, only 3 countries have done this feat – Soviet Union, United States of America (USA) and China.
The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has achieved success with its Chandrayaan-3 mission by achieving a ‘soft landing’ on the southern pole of the Moon. This makes India the first country in the world to land on the southern pole of the Moon.
As part of the Chandrayaan-3 mission, the lander named ‘Vikram’ has been successfully placed on the Moon’s surface. Following this, the rover named ‘Pragyan’ has plans to conduct research and exploration on the Moon’s surface for 14 days.
Until now, only the United States, China, and Russia have succeeded in landing on the Moon’s surface. However, today, on August 23, 2023, India has also achieved this accomplishment. This makes India an important nation from all sides, signifying that they have become the fourth country capable of such achievements.
Chandrayaan-3 Details in Short type Question and Answer in table Format.
|When was Chandrayaan-3 launched?||July 14, 2023 at 2:35 PM IST|
|Where was Chandrayaan-3 launched from?||Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India|
|Which rocket was used to launch Chandrayaan-3?||LVM3-M4 rocket|
|What is the name of the main rocket engine for Chandrayaan-3?||ICE-20 क्रायोजेनिक इंजन (Cryogenic Engine)|
|Who launched Chandrayaan-3?||Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)|
|What is the name of the lander of Chandrayaan-3?||Vikram|
|What is the name of the Rover of Chandrayaan-3?||Pragyan|
|Who is the current chairman of ISRO?||S. Somnath|
|How many capable engines does the lander of Chandrayaan-3 have?||4|
The lander named Vikram has safely reached the surface of the Moon. Now, the battery of the Pragyan rover inside it will be activated, and its solar panels will open up. Then, the rover will move onto the surface of the Moon. After landing on the surface, its camera and other parts will start working. Next, the rover will begin to explore the surface and collect data with awareness. This is a robotic vehicle with six wheels that will move on the Moon and take pictures.
This Chandrayaan-3 demonstrated end-to-end capability by turning around with a safe landing. It is scheduled to be launched by LVM3 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. Under this mission, the propulsion module will take the lander and rover configuration up to 100 km lunar orbit.
Chandrayaan-3 is a follow-up mission to Chandrayaan-2, which demonstrated end-to-end capability in safe landing and orbiting on the lunar surface. This includes the lander and rover configurations. It will be launched by LVM3 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The propulsion module will take the calendar and rover configuration up to 100 km lunar orbit. The propulsion module carries the Spectro-Polarimeter of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAP) payload to study the spectral and polar metric measurements of Earth from lunar orbit.
Lunar Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) to measure thermal conductivity and temperature; the Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) to measure seismicity around the landing site; Langmuir probe (LP) to estimate plasma density and its variations. A passive laser retroreflector array from NASA has been adjusted for lunar laser ranging studies.
Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) to obtain elemental composition around the landing site.
Information of Chandrayaan-3
Chandrayaan-3 comprises an indigenous Lander Module (LM), Propulsion Module (PM) and a Rover, aimed at developing and demonstrating new technologies required for interplanetary missions. The lander will have the capability to soft land at a designated lunar site and deploy a rover that will perform in-situ chemical analysis of the lunar surface during its mobility.
The lander and rover carry scientific payloads to conduct experiments on the lunar surface. The main function of the PM is to propel the LM from launch vehicle injection to the final lunar 100 km circular polar orbit and to separate the LM from the PM. In addition, the propulsion module also has a scientific payload as a value addition which will be operated after the separation of the lander module. The launcher identified for Chandrayaan-3 is GSLV-MK3 which will place the integrated module into an Elliptic Parking Orbit (EPO) of size ~170 x 36500 km.
Main objectives of the Mission of Chandrayaan-3
- To demonstrate a safe and soft landing on the lunar surface
- To demonstrate the rover walking on the Moon and
- To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.
There are Several advanced Technologies Present in the lander to achieve the mission objectives such as,
- Altimeter: Laser and RF based Altimeter
- Velocimeter: Laser Doppler Velocimeter and Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera
- Inertial Measurement: Laser Gyro Based Inertial Reference and Accelerometer Package
- Propulsion System: 800N Throttleable Liquid Engines, 58N Attitude Thrusters and Throttleable Engine Control Electronics
- Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC): Powered descent trajectory design and associated software elements
- Threat Detection and Avoidance: Lander threat detection and avoidance camera and processing algorithm.
Landing Leg Mechanism
To demonstrate the above advanced technologies under Earth conditions, several lander specific tests have been planned and successfully carried out.
Integrated Cold Test – To perform integrated sensor and navigation performance testing using a helicopter as a test platform
Integrated Hot Test – To perform closed loop performance testing with sensors, actuators and NGC using a tower crane as a test platform
The lander leg mechanism performance test simulates various touch down conditions on a lunar simulant test bed.
Chandrayaan Speech in English
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Today, I am excited to talk about India’s incredible space journey with the Chandrayaan missions. Chandrayaan is a series of lunar explorations undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
The word “Chandrayaan” comes from two Hindi words: “Chandra,” which means Moon, and “Yaan,” which means vehicle. So, it’s like a Moon vehicle! The mission aims to conduct scientific research and study the lunar surface’s composition, minerals, and water presence.
Chandrayaan-1, launched in 2008, made India the fourth country to reach the Moon and confirmed the existence of water molecules on the lunar surface. This historic achievement filled our nation with pride.
In 2019, Chandrayaan-2 carried the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to the Moon. Though the Vikram lander faced challenges during its descent, the mission was still a remarkable scientific feat.
The lander was called “Vikram.” It carried a small rover named “Pragyan.” The rover was like a small car that could move around on the Moon’s surface. Imagine a little robot exploring another world – that’s exactly what Pragyan did! It was designed to analyze the soil and rocks and send the information back to Earth.
These missions have not only expanded our knowledge of the Moon but also inspired countless young minds to pursue careers in science and technology.
As we continue our pursuit of space exploration, Chandrayaan remains a shining example of India’s capabilities and aspirations to explore the cosmos.
Let us look forward to more exciting missions like Chandrayaan, as they unite us as a nation and bring us closer to unraveling the secrets of the universe.