Essay on Earthquake in English for Students & Children

Friends, Earthquake is such a natural disaster that whenever it occurs, there is a lot of loss of life and property. There is no fixed time for its arrival. It can come anytime and whenever it comes it causes terrible destruction.

When an earthquake occurs, the earth starts shaking. Due to which the life of all the living beings living on it becomes a threat. According to the speed and intensity of the earthquake after the occurrence of the earth, it is estimated that how much loss of life and property has happened. Along with humans, most of the animals also die.

Because less intensity causes less damage to people’s lives and property, if the same intensity is above 7 then there is a lot of damage and people’s lives are also lost.

Earthquake causes huge damage to any country, most of the people become homeless, a critical situation arises for them.

There is talk of taking precautions after an earthquake, but there is no time limit for the occurrence of an earthquake. That’s why whenever an earthquake occurs, people get scared, suddenly their brain stops working. They don’t understand anything.

What is an earthquake and how does it occur?

Whenever there is a movement inside the earth, it comes out in the form of an earthquake. Which we call earthquake. We can understand the earthquake in the same way as we throw a stone in the water and it goes to the shore as a wave. Which is fast in the beginning, but as it increases further, it becomes slow.

Similarly, an earthquake also causes more devastation where its epicenter is. Rest of the place only earthquake tremors are felt. The low-speed waves of an earthquake do not cause much harm, but the high-speed waves prove to be catastrophic for the people.

Friends, as we know that the earth on which we live. They have three parts below,

  • The first crust on which we live. Whose length is about 0 – 60 kilometers.
  • Mantle which is exactly the middle part of the earth. The thick part is about 2,900 kilometers in length. We know this part by the name of Magma.
  • Core (Core) which is the central part of the earth. It has 2 cores. The first is the inner core. Which is the hottest, its temperature is about 5,500 degrees Celsius.

The second is the outer core. Which is very hot in comparison to the Earth, its temperature ranges from about 4000 Fahrenheit (sign °F) – 9000 Fahrenheit (sign °F).

How do Earthquakes Happen?

The part of the earth on which we live is called the crust. The part which is just below it is called Mantle i.e., Magma. So, when the amount of temperature increases inside this magma, it tries to come up. That is, he tries to tear the earth apart.

Only then there is a stir inside the earth. Because of which a collision occurs between the plates inside the earth, which is up and down the plate, due to which the upper part of the earth is stretched and the condition of ground sinking is seen. We call this process an earthquake.

But the magma that bursts out of the earth and comes out in the form of lava is called a volcano. Which is absolutely red coal. The temperature of the environment around there suddenly increases. Which is not worth tolerating any living being.


Scientists measure the intensity of an earthquake using the Reactor Scale. To measure the intensity of an earthquake, it is divided into several categories. It was invented by French scientist Charles Francis in 1945.

It is said by scientists that the scale of earthquake waves is measured on the basis of 1 to 9. Rather 9 is not the end point, it can go above this also. This measuring reactor is called the Magnitude Test Scale.

It is said that if the scale is 2.0 or less then it is called micro earthquake, which we cannot feel. If its intensity is 4.5 then we can feel it and it is not much harmful. But if this earthquake lasts for a long time, it can damage the houses.

If the intensity of the earthquake is above 7 or 7.5 then it is very harmful. Earthquakes of this intensity cause huge damage to people and a large amount of their lives and property are lost.

Earthquake tragedies in different parts of the world

Earthquakes have occurred in many parts of the world and have brought great devastation. which is like this –

  • In 1908, due to the earthquake in Italy, lakhs of people died and a large number of people were injured. Most of the property was damaged.
  • In 1960, when an earthquake hit the city called Peru, about 60,000 people died tragically and most of the people were injured.
  • Similarly, in 1958, when an earthquake hit China, about 1 lakh people died and people were also injured.
  • Then in the year 2001, about 2 lakh people died due to an earthquake in the Gujarat state of India.
  • Similarly, in this present time, due to the earthquake inside Turkey in the month of February 2023, about 26000 people have died so far, which is still going on. More people are in injured condition.

Causes of earthquake

The main reason for this is when the magma inside the earth gets heated and comes out in the form of a volcano. Because of which vibration is created in the earth and the collision and up-down in the inner plates is called earthquake.

When the earth explodes and lava comes out, then the waves coming out from it are called earthquake waves, which we call earthquakes.

Damage of Earthquake

Whenever an earthquake has occurred on a large scale on the earth – then it has caused great devastation in the world. Due to the arrival of earthquake, all the living beings on the earth, human beings, green trees, plants and infrastructure suffer a lot of damage. Most of the people become homeless.

Earthquake Survival Tips

There is only one way to avoid its earthquake, that whenever you feel the tremors of the earthquake, you should immediately get out of the house and go to the empty ground and lie down on the ground. You can avoid this remedy but we cannot stop the damage caused by it. Because it is not in our hands.

Not only at home, wherever you are driving a car, or sitting on a chair, we should also stay alert by staying away from windows and shelves. And you should try your best to reach out into the empty space.


If we talk about today’s time, no matter how great someone becomes in front of nature, it is nothing in front of him. That’s why we should do any work keeping nature in mind.

A lot of effort should be made to avoid this earthquake. No matter how much the scientist searches, he has not been able to find the solution to the natural calamity yet.

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